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Bothriolepis canadensis
Bothriolepis #1
Bothriolepis is a genus of the order Antiarchi (class Placodermi), which lived in the Late Devonian period. They lived almost of the world 5), 6).
The anterior half of body forms cephalic and thoracic armor made from cellular dermal bone tissue 2). The posterior half extended from the anterior dermal armor makes a fish-like tail 5).
Bothriolepis #2
B.canadensis, a representative species of genus Bothriolepis is about 40cm and apploximately 35% of the body is covered with the dermal armor 1).
It might have been a bed-dwaller and a scavenger eating detritus of animals and plants or limivorous feeding on mud containing organic matter 5), 6).
Bothriolepis #3
As described above, Bothriolepis are found worldwide, but their remains largely come from freshwater to brackish deposits 5), 6). In Pennsylvania, mass death events of Bothriolepis juveniles has been found in the Upper Devonian Formation, suggesting that they had been spawned to marginal aquatic environments and had died of anoxia and desiccation 3).
Accordingly, Bothriolepis might have been able to come and go between fresh water and salt water environment.
created in August 2014.
  1. Béchard I, Arsenault F, Cloutier R, Kerr J (2014) The Devonian placoderm fish Bothriolepis canadensis revisited with three-dimensional digital imagery. Palaeontologia Electronica 17(1.2A): 19p. (DOI:10.26879/417)
  2. Downs JP, Donoghue PCJ (2009) Skeletal histology of Bothriolepis canadensis (Placodermi, Antiarchi) and evolution of the skeleton at the origin of jawed vertebrates. [abstract] J.Morphol. 270(11):1364-1380. (DOI: 10.1002/jmor.10765)
  3. Downs JP, Criswell KE, Daeschler EB (2011) Mass mortality of juvenile Antiarchs (Bothriolepis sp.) from the Catskill Formation (Upper Devonian, Famennian Stage), Tioga County, Pennsylvania. [abstract] Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 161(1):191-203. (DOI: 10.1635/053.161.0111)
  4. Patten W (1904) New facts concerning Bothriolepis. Biological Bulletin 7(2): 113-124. (DOI: 10.2307/1535537)
  5. Prehistoric Wildlife
  6. Weems RE, Beem KA, Miller TA (1981) A new species Bothriolepis (Placodermi: Bothriolepidae) from the Upper Devonian of Virginia (U.S.A.) Proc. Biol. Soc.Wash. 94(4):984-1004.