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Coccosteus cuspidatus
Coccosteus #1
Coccosteus is an extinct fish group lived in the Devoinan peroid. They belong to the class Placodermi 4), 5), like Bothriolepis, Dunkleosteus. Coccosteus and Dunkleosteus are classified to the order Arthrodira 4), 5), which means "joint neck" in Greek 5).
Coccosteus #2
The name placoderm means "plate" and "skin" in Greek "plakos" and "derma" respectively 5). That is, in the Placoderms, the anterior of the body is covered by the dermal bones which can form only in the skin 5).
Coccosteus #3
The type species of genus Coccosteus 2), C. cuspidatus, is about 20 cm in length 4), so they are not so fierce as Dunkleosteus.
Coccosteus #4
In the aquatic environment of the Ordovician and the Silurian, the dominant and diversed fish group was the agnathans which had no jaws like Arandaspis, Sacabambaspis or Cephalaspis. By the Early Devonian, the succeeded group in the rivers, lakes, and seas was the Placoderms, especially, the Arthrodires radiated in both marine and non-marine environments during the Middle and Late Devonian 5).
Coccosteus #5
Coccosteus is common in the Sandwick Fish Bed of Scotland 3). Since the Sandwick Fish Bed , which is the subdivision of Middle Old Red Sandstone, was formed in the non-marine terrestrial environments 1), Coccosteus would have lived in the freshwater environments 4).
Coccosteus had tiny teeth structures 3), 4) and a mouth that could open wide 4), suggesting that they were predators preying on small fishes or arthropods, or scavengers sucking bottom mud with a great amount of water and filtrating organic materials and dead bodies of animals by their gills.
created in December 2016.