参照サイト - References -
古生代の概要
  1. Peterson KJ,Davidson EH (2000) Regulatory evolution and the origin of the bilaterians. Proc.Natl.Acd.Sci.USA 97(9): 4430-4433. (DOI:10.1073/pnas.97.9.4430)
  2. Holland PWH. (2015) Did homeobox gene duplications contribute to the Cambrian explosion? Zoological Letters 1(1). (DOI:10.1186/s40851-014-0004-x)
  3. Berkeley Natural History Museums
  4. LIVESCIENCE - Paleozoic Era: Facts & Information -, Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian, Permian
  5. Wikipedia "Paleozoic"
  6. ウィキペディア "顕生代"
  7. ウィキペディア "古生代"
アカントステガ Acanthostega gunnari
  1. Tree of Life web project
  2. Wikipedia "Acanthostega"
  3. ウィキペディア "アカントステガ"
アクモニスチオン・ザンゲリ Akmonistion zangerli
  1. Coates MI, Sequeira SEK (2001) A new Stethacanthid Chondrichthyan from the lower Carboniferous of Bearsden, Scotland. J. Vert. Paleontol. 21(3):438–459 (DOI:10.1671/0272-4634(2001)021[0438:ANSCFT]2.0.CO;2)
  2. Coates MI, Sequeira SEK, Sansom IJ, Smith MM (1998) Spines and tissues of ancient sharks. Nature 396: 729-730
  3. Zangeri R (1984) On the microscopic anatomy and possible function of the spine-"brush" complex of Stethacanthus (Elasmobranchii: Symmoriida). J. Vert. Paleontol. 4(3):372-378 (DOI:10.1080/02724634.1984.10012016
  4. Wikipedia "Akmonistion"
  5. Wikipedia "Stethacanthus"
  6. ウィキペディア "ステタカントゥス"
アノマロカリス Anomalocaris sp.
  1. The Burgess Shale (Royal Ontario Museum)
  2. NHKアーカイブス NHKスペシャル「生命 40億年はるかな旅」
アノマロカリス・サロン Anomalocaris saron
  1. Hou XG, Bergström J, Ahlberg P (1995) Anomalocaris and Other Large Animals in the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang Fauna of Southwest China. GFF 117: 163-183. (DOI:10.1080/11035899509546213)
  2. ウィキペディア "アノマロカリス"
  3. The Anomalocaris Homepage
アランダスピス Arandaspis ipronotolepis
  1. Long, J. (2014) The oldest fish in the world lived 500 million years ago. The Conversation, June 12,2014(AEST)(accessed 2019.05.11)
  2. Ritchie,A. Gilbert-Tomlinson,J. (1977) First Ordovician vertebrates from the Southern Hemisphere. [Abstract] Alcheringa 1(4), p351-368.(DOI:10.1080/03115517708527770)
  3. Australia: The Land Where Time Began(accessed 2019.05.11)
  4. Prehistoric Wildlife(accessed 2019.05.11)
  5. Tree of Life(accessed 2019.05.11)
  6. Wikipedia "Arandaspis"(accessed 2019.05.11)
  7. ウィキペディア "アランダスピス"(accessed 2019.05.11)
アンモナイト Ammonoidea
  1. Invertebrate Paleontology Tutorial (State University of New York College at Cortland)
ウィワクシア Wiwaxia sp.
  1. Smith MR (2012) Mouthparts of the Burgess Shale fossils Odontogriphus and Wiwaxia: implications for the ancestral molluscan radula. Proc.R.Soc.B. 279: 4287-4295. (DOI:10.1098/rspb.2012.1577)
  2. Smith MR (2013) Data from: Ontogeny, morphology and taxonomy of the soft-bodied Cambrian ‘mollusc’ Wiwaxia. DRYAD. (DOI:10.5061/dryad.868sm)
  3. blender.org
オドントグリフス Odontogriphus omalus
  1. Royal Ontario Museum
  2. The Burgess Shale (Royal Ontario Museum)
  3. Wikipedia "Odontogriphus"
  4. Caron JB, Scheltema A, Schander C, Rudkin D (2006) A soft-bodied mollusc with radula from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. Nature 442: 159-163. (DOI:10.1038/nature04894)
  5. ウィキペディア "多板綱"
オパビニア Opabinia regalis
  1. ウィキペディア "オパビニア"
クリマティウス Climatius reticulatus
  1. prehistoric-wildlife.com
  2. Devonian Times "More About Acanthodians (spiny fins)"
  3. Biology Discussion
  4. Wikipedia "Acanthodii"
  5. Wikipedia "Climatius"
  6. ウィキペディア "クリマティウス"
ケファラスピス Cephalaspis sp.
  1. Voichyshyn V (2006) New osteostracans from the Lower Devonian terrigenous deposits of Podolia, Ukraine. Acta Palaeontol. Pol. 51(1): 131–142
  2. Wikipedia "Ostracoderm"
  3. Wikipedia "Osteostraci"
  4. Wikipedia "Cephalaspidomorphi"
  5. Wikipedia "Cephalaspis"
ケリグマケラ Kerygmachela kierkegaardi
  1. Budd G (1993) A Cambrian gilled lobopod from Greenland. Nature 364: 709-711. (DOI:10.1038/364709a0)
  2. Budd GE (1998) The morphology and phylogenetic significance of Kerygmachela kierkegaardi Budd (Buen Formation, Lower Cambrian, N Greenland). T.Roy.Soc.Edin.-Earth Sci. 89: 249–290. (DOI:10.1017/S0263593300002418)
  3. Park TYS, Kihm JH, Woo J, Park C, Lee WY, Smith MP, Harper DAT, Young F, Nielsen AT, Vinther J (2018) Brain and eyes of Kerygmachela reveal protocerebral ancestry of the panarthropod head.Nature Communication 9 (article No.1019). (DOI:10.1038/s41467-018-03464-w)
  4. Park et al.(2018) Brain and eyes of Kerygmachela reveal protocerebral ancestry of the panarthropod head - Supplementary Information -. (DOI:10.1038/s41467-018-03464-w)
  5. The Anomalocaris Homepage
  6. prehistoric-wildlife.com
  7. Wikipedia "Kerygmachela"
  8. ウィキペディア "ケリグマケラ"
  9. ウィキペディア "シリウス・パセット動物群"
コッコステウス Coccosteus cuspidatus
  1. prehistoric-wildlife.com
  2. Wikipedia "Coccosteus"
  3. ウィキペディア "コッコステウス"
サカバンバスピス Sacabambaspis janvieri
  1. Pradel,A. Sansom,I.J. Gagnier,PY, Cespedes,R. Janvier,P. (2006) The tail of the Ordovician fish Sacabambaspis. Biol. Lett. 3, 72-75. (DOI:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0557)
  2. Long, J. (2014) The oldest fish in the world lived 500 million years ago. The Conversation, June 12,2014(AEST)(accessed 2019.05.11)
  3. Ritchie,A. Gilbert-Tomlinson,J. (1977) First Ordovician vertebrates from the Southern Hemisphere. [Abstract] Alcheringa 1(4), p351-368.(DOI:10.1080/03115517708527770)
  4. Australia: The Land Where Time Began(accessed 2019.05.11)
  5. Prehistoric Wildlife(accessed 2019.05.11)
  6. Tree of Life(accessed 2019.05.11)
  7. Wikipedia "Sacabambaspis"(accessed 2019.05.11)
  8. ウィキペディア "サカバンバスピス"(accessed 2019.05.11)
三葉虫 Trilobite
  1. A Guide to the Orders of Trilobites
シダズーン(クシダゾーン) Xidazoon stephanus
  1. Shu DG, Conway Morris S, Han J, Chen L, Zhang XL, Zhang ZF, Liu HQ, Liu JN (2001) Primitive deuterostomes from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Lower Cambrian, China). Nature 414: 419-424. (DOI:10.1038/35106514)
  2. Shu DG et al (2001) Supplementary information. Nature. (DOI:10.1038/35106514)
ダンクルオステウス Dunkleosteus telleri
  1. Anderson PSL, Westneat M (2007) Feeding mechanics and bite force modelling of the skull of Dunkleosteus terrelli, an ancient apex predator. Biol.Lett. 3: 76-79. (DOI:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0569)
  2. Cleveland Museum of NATURAL HISTORY
  3. prehistoric-wildlife.com
  4. SEBASTIAN MEYER "Animal Armageddon"
  5. Wikipedia "Dunkleosteus"
  6. ウィキペディア "ダンクルオステウス"
チョッカクガイ Orthocerida
  1. ウィキペディア "チョッカクガイ"
ディプロカウルス Diplocaulus sp.
  1. Paleofile.com "Diplocaulus"
  2. Pappas S (2013) Finned Monster Chomped Heads Off Ancient Amphibians LIVE SCIENCE Oct. 31.
  3. Cruickshank ARI, Skews BW (1980) The functional significance of nectridean tabular horns (Amphibia: Lepospondyli). Proc.R.Soc.B.209 (1177), 513-, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1980.0110)
  4. Wikipedia "Diplocaulus"
  5. ウィキペディア "ディプロカウルス"
  6. NEW DINOSAURS
テリゴトゥス(プテリゴトゥス,ウミサソリ) Pterygotus anglicus
  1. Miller RF (2007) PTERYGOTUS ANGLICUS AGASSIZ (CHELICERATA:EURYPTERIDA) FROM ATHOLVILLE, LOWER DEVONIAN CAMPBELLTON FORMATION, NEW BRUNSWICK, CANADA. Palaeontology 50(4): 981-999. (DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2007.00683.x)
  2. Wikipedia "Eurypterid"
  3. ウィキペディア "ウミサソリ"
ネクトカリス Nectocaris pteryx
  1. Royal Ontario Museum
  2. The Burgess Shale (Royal Ontario Museum)
  3. The Burgess Shale - Fossil Gallery -
  4. Smith MR (2013) Nectocaridid ecology, diversity, and affinity: early origin of a cephalopod-like body plan. Paleobiology 39(2): 297-321. (DOI:10.1666/12029)
  5. Smith MR (2013) Data from: Nectocaridid ecology, diversity, and affinity: early origin of a cephalopod-like body plan. DRYAD. (DOI:10.5061/dryad.7m6kg)
  6. blender.org
  7. Wikipedia "Nectocaris"
  8. ウィキペディア "ネクトカリス"
ハルキゲニア Hallucigenia sp.
  1. Conway Morris S (1977) A new metazoan from the Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia. Palaeontology 20(3): 623-640
  2. Royal Ontario Museum
  3. The burgess Shale (Royal Ontario Museum)
  4. The burgess Shale - Fossil Gallery -
  5. University of California Museum of Paleontology
  6. Understanding Evolution (UCMP)
  7. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
  8. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History "Brgess Shale"
  9. ウキペディア "デューン 砂の惑星"
フルディア Hurdia sp.
  1. Royal Ontario Museam - Fossil Gallery -
  2. Daley AC, Budd GE, Caron JB, Edgecombe G, Collins D (2009) The Burgess Shale Anomalocaridid Hurdia and Its Significance for Early Euarthropod Evolution. Science 323: 1597-1600. ( DOI:10.1126/science.1169514)
  3. Wikipedia "Hurdia"
  4. ウィキペディア "フルディア"
ボトリオレピス Bothriolepis canadensis
  1. Béchard I, Arsenault F, Cloutier R, Kerr J (2014) The Devonian placoderm fish Bothriolepis canadensis revisited with three-dimensional digital imagery. Palaeontologia Electronica 17(1.2A): 19p. (DOI:10.26879/417)
  2. Wikipedia "Bothriolepis"
  3. ウィキペディア "ボトリオレピス"
マーレラ(マルレラ) Marrella splendens
  1. Parker AR (1998) Colour in Burgess Shale animals and the effect of light on evolution in the Cambrian. Proc.Biol.Sci. 265(1400): 967-972. (DOI:10.1098/rspb.1998.0385)
  2. ウィキペディア "マーレラ"
  3. Royal Ontario Museum -Fossile Gallery -
ユーリプテルス(エウリプテルス,ウミサソリ) Eurypterus sp.
  1. Miller RF (2007) PTERYGOTUS ANGLICUS AGASSIZ (CHELICERATA:EURYPTERIDA) FROM ATHOLVILLE, LOWER DEVONIAN CAMPBELLTON FORMATION, NEW BRUNSWICK, CANADA. Palaeontology 50(4): 981-999. (DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2007.00683.x)
  2. Braddy SJ, Dunlop J (1997) The functional morphology of mating in the Silurian eurypterid,Baltoeurypterus tetragonophthalmus(Fischer, 1839). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120(4): 435-461. (DOI:10.1006/zjls.1997.0093)
  3. Manning PL, Dunlop J (1995) The respiratory organs of eurypterids. Palaeontology 38(2): 287-297
  4. Wikipedia "Eurypterus"
  5. ウィキペディア "ユーリプテルス"